Mpox (monkeypox) outbreak 2022
Academic research and book chapters
The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the mpox (monkeypox/MPX) outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in 2022.
Below, browse key research on mpox and other types of orthopoxvirus such as smallpox as well as resources examining the stigma of disease and the role of media and communication during health crises.
- Recent research and insights
- Origins and background of the outbreak
- Transmission and spread
- Vaccine research
- Vaccination strategy
- Tackling health-related stigma
- Health communication and media
- Support and resources from health organizations
You can publish your mpox research and insights in the F1000 monkeypox collection or in a journal.
21 November 2022
Male sexual health implications of the 2022 global monkeypox outbreak
by J. White, et al. in Research and Reports in Urology
This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, and evaluation of MPX with regard to men’s sexual health. It also discusses the role of men’s health specialists and urologists in addressing the current outbreak.
10 November 2022
The first case of monkeypox in Hong Kong presenting as infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome
by Kelvin Hei-Yeung Chiu, et al. in Emerging Microbes & Infections
This letter describes the first case of imported human mpox in Hong Kong in September 2022.
Origins of mpox and background to the outbreak
Recent animal disease outbreaks and their impact on human populations
by Jeffrey B. Bender, Will Hueston, and Mike Osterholm in Journal of Agromedicine
This review examines the implications of emerging animal diseases and highlights why there needs to be better collaboration between veterinary and medical practitioners, especially in rural areas.
Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination
by Stefan Riedel in Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings
Discover the origins of smallpox and the smallpox vaccination, in this article.
Monkeypox re-emergence in Africa: a call to expand the concept and practice of One Health
by Mary G. Reynolds, et al. in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Find out how interrupting the transmission of mpox from animals to humans is key to combating this disease.
Importance of epidemiological research of monkeypox: is incidence increasing?
by Chikwe Ihekweazu, et al. in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
This study published in 2020 explores some of the challenges of managing the threat of mpox.
Smallpox: a review for health educators
by Timothy J. Bungum in American Journal of Health Education
This article describes the history and eradication of smallpox and discusses how health professionals can prepare for an outbreak of smallpox and similar viruses.
by Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan, Gnanavel Venkatesan, and Veerakyathappa Bhanuprakash in Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens
This book chapter explores diagnostic approaches for viruses of the orthopoxvirus genus, such as mpox.
by Joseph E. Blaney and Reed F. Johnson in Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins
A medical overview of the mpox virus, including biology and epidemiology, identification and diagnosis, treatments, and prevention.
Orthopoxviruses – monkeypox, cowpox, vaccinia, camelpox, mousepox
by M. Sofi Ibrahim and James D. Mellott in Encyclopedia of Medical Genomics and Proteomics
This chapter explores mpox and related orthopoxviruses from a genomics and proteomics perspective.
Transmission and spread
Knowledge of human monkeypox viral infection among general practitioners: a cross-sectional study in Indonesia
by Harapan Harapan, et al. in Pathogens and Global Health
This article highlights the challenges of controlling a mpox outbreak when there's a lack of collaboration between central government and front-line health professionals.
Spread of variola minor among vaccinated members of a household
by Guilherme Rodrigues-Da-Silva, Juan J. Angulo, and S. Ivo Rabello in Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases
This case study from 1973 examines how a child who caught smallpox at school infected members of their household.
An overview of Tecovirimat for smallpox treatment and expanded anti-orthopoxvirus applications
by Andrew T. Russo, et al. in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Get a detailed overview of Tecovirimat (ST-246), a drug that was approved for the treatment of symptomatic smallpox by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2018.
The design and development of drugs acting against the smallpox virus
by Kamel El Omari and David K. Stammers in Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
This article reviews the development of several antiviral drugs for treating smallpox and associated viruses including mpox.
Smallpox antiviral drug development: satisfying the animal efficacy rule
by Robert Jordan and Dennis Hruby in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
This review examines some of the challenges of developing therapeutics to prevent and treat smallpox when it's no longer an endemic disease.
IMVAMUNE®: modified vaccinia Ankara strain as an attenuated smallpox vaccine
by Jeffrey S Kennedy and Richard N Greenberg in Expert Review of Vaccines
This profile examines IMVAMUNE, a smallpox vaccine that has been proposed for high-risk people such as those with immune deficiency disorders.
Vaccinia virus-based vector against infectious diseases and tumors
by Ziling Zhang, et al. in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Most smallpox vaccines are developed using the vaccinia virus. Find out about the history, status, and prospects of vaccinia virus-based vaccines in this mini-review.
Smallpox vaccines for biodefense: need and feasibility
by Andrew W. Artenstein and John D. Grabenstein in Expert Review of Vaccines
This article reviews the history of smallpox vaccines, assesses the status of newer vaccines, and examines the risks and benefits of smallpox vaccination.
The new ACAM2000™ vaccine and other therapies to control orthopoxvirus outbreaks and bioterror attacks
by Lauren Handley, et al. in Expert Review of Vaccines
ACAM2000 is licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for immunization against smallpox and is available for the prevention of mpox. This article profiles ACAM2000.
Vaccinia virus and other poxviruses as live vectors
by Bernard Moss in New Generation Vaccines
This book chapter examines the viruses used to create smallpox vaccines.
Vaccinia viral vectors for vaccines and oncolytic virotherapy
by Z. Sheng Guo, J. Andrea McCart, and David L. Bartlett in Gene and Cell Therapy: Therapeutic Mechanisms and Strategies
Vaccinia virus has been used clinically as a smallpox vaccine for more than 150 years. This book chapter reviews its biology, lifecycle, immune responses, safety, and more.
Improved smallpox vaccines
by Matthew E. Cohen and Stuart N. Isaacs in New Generation Vaccines
In this book chapter, authors from the University of Pennsylvania examine several types of smallpox vaccines.
They review the issues around vaccine stocks and address the challenge of vaccinating a population with diverse medical needs.
Modeling of optimal vaccination strategies in response to a bioterrorism-associated smallpox outbreak
by Valentina Costantino, Mohana Kunasekaran, and Chandini Raina MacIntyre in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
This study simulated several types of vaccination programs in response to a smallpox outbreak in Sydney, Australia.
The strategic use of novel smallpox vaccines in the post-eradication world
by Joseph W Golden and Jay W Hooper in Expert Review of Vaccines
This review examines novel subunit/component vaccines and the roles they might play in unconventional strategies to defend against emerging orthopoxvirus diseases such as mpox.
Leapfrogging with technology: introduction of a monitoring platform to support a large-scale Ebola vaccination program in Rwanda
by Paula McKenna, et al. in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Find out how the Rwanda Ministry of Health initiated a preventive vaccination campaign supported by a vaccination monitoring platform (VMP).
Vaccination programmes: aims and strategies
by Susan Hahné, Kaatje Bollaerts, and Paddy Farrington in Vaccination Programmes
As well as a brief overview of the history of programmatic vaccination, this chapter highlights the aims, strategies, and monitoring and evaluation methods of vaccine programs.
It also describes the roles of stakeholders and international networks.
Tackling health-related stigma
Dark Winter and the spring of 1972: deflecting the social lessons of smallpox
by Ronald Barrett in Medical Anthropology
This article highlights how simulations of smallpox outbreaks tend to ignore the key social factors – such as stigma of disease and access to health care – that can contribute to the severity of outbreaks.
The impact of sources of stigma on health care avoidance among gay and bisexual men in Australia
by L. Brener, et al. in AIDS Care
Anyone can catch mpox but there are higher levels of transmission in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM). This study examines whether stigma from various sources affects GBM's access to health care services.
Health-related stigma: rethinking concepts and interventions
by Mitchell G. Weiss, Jayashree Ramakrishna, and Daryl Somma in Psychology, Health & Medicine
Stigma contributes to a hidden burden of illness. This review highlights approaches for reducing the effect of stigma on health interventions.
International research workshop on health-related stigma and discrimination
by Daryl Somma and Virginia Bond in Psychology, Health & Medicine
This workshop examines models of health-related stigma and discrimination. It also highlights strategies for measuring and reducing stigma and discrimination in a health care context.
Who's to blame for the spread of COVID-19 in New Zealand? Applying attribution theory to understand public stigma
by Thao Nguyen, et al. in Communication Research and Practice
This study investigates blame attribution and prejudices against Asian and Chinese people in New Zealand during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Health communication and media
Spreading Ebola panic: Newspaper and social media coverage of the 2014 Ebola health crisis
by Danielle K. Brown, Joseph Yoo, and Thomas J. Johnson in Health Communication
The media has historically contributed to public fear and panic by emphasizing the risks and uncertainties of health crises. This research examines news coverage of the 2014 Ebola crisis, exploring differences between newspaper coverage and news shared on social media.
Smallpox vaccination is not associated with infertility in a healthy young adult population
by Isabel G. Jacobson, et al. in Human Vaccines
This study explored whether there's a relationship between infertility diagnosis and the smallpox vaccine.
A systematic review of fear, stigma, and mental health outcomes of pandemics
by Aghna Wasim, et al. in Journal of Mental Health
As part of this study, researchers examined the role of misinformation in propagating discrimination and prejudice towards certain groups.
Fear factor: The unseen perils of the Ebola outbreak
by James M. Shultz, et al. in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists
Infectious diseases create fear and psychological reactions. This article highlights how authorities must consider this to reduce the deadly effects of fear during future outbreaks.
Troubling expertise: social media and young people's sexual health
by Paul Byron in Communication Research and Practice
Social media is an integral part of many young people's lives. This article draws on recent health promotion research to examine the effectiveness of sexual health promotion on social media.
Notions of risk
by Andrea Kitta in Vaccinations and Public Concern in History
This book chapter examines how health educators can effectively communicate the concept of risk in relation to vaccinations and their associated diseases.
Monitoring vaccine coverage and attitudes towards vaccination
by Susan Hahné, Kaatje Bollaerts, and Paddy Farrington in Vaccination Programmes
In this chapter, the authors use case studies to highlight methods for understanding public attitudes towards vaccination and monitoring and interpreting vaccine coverage.
Disinformation, misinformation, and "fake news" has a significant negative impact on society during a health crisis. In this Insights article, leading experts explain how disinformation spreads, why it's dangerous, and how to fight it.
Support and resources from health organizations
- Monkeypox (NHS)
- Monkeypox (European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control)
- Monkeypox (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
- Monkeypox (World Health Organization)
- Monkeypox in the UK (Terrence Higgins Trust)
- Monkeypox update (GMHC)
Publish your research and insights
Submit your research to the F1000 monkeypox collection
The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted that the rapid sharing of research is critical for supporting governments around the world in their response to outbreaks of diseases such as monkeypox.
F1000Research is an Open Research publishing platform for scientists, scholars, and clinicians. It allows you to publish articles and other research outputs quickly.
Our monkeypox collection aims to bring together important research related to any aspect of monkeypox and makes this information readily available to researchers, educators, health officials, and the general public.
We welcome a range of article types including opinion pieces, living systematic reviews, and original research articles.
Publish in a journal
Browse calls for papers for opportunities that fit your area of expertise.
Or find out how to publish your research in a Taylor & Francis journal.