Mpox (monkeypox) outbreak 2022

Academic research and book chapters

Close up of health professional giving a male the monkeypox vaccine

The World Health Organization (WHO) declared the mpox (monkeypox/MPX) outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) in 2022.

Below, browse key research on mpox and other types of orthopoxvirus such as smallpox as well as resources examining the stigma of disease and the role of media and communication during health crises.

You can publish your mpox research and insights in the F1000 monkeypox collection or in a journal.

Monkeypox virus viewed under microscope

Recent research and insights

21 November 2022

Male sexual health implications of the 2022 global monkeypox outbreak

by J. White, et al. in Research and Reports in Urology

Sexual health clinic sign on a brick wall

This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, and evaluation of MPX with regard to men’s sexual health. It also discusses the role of men’s health specialists and urologists in addressing the current outbreak.

10 November 2022

The first case of monkeypox in Hong Kong presenting as infectious mononucleosis-like syndrome

by Kelvin Hei-Yeung Chiu, et al. in Emerging Microbes & Infections

Signage at the Infectious Disease Centre at Princess Margaret Hospital, Hong Kong

This letter describes the first case of imported human mpox in Hong Kong in September 2022.

Origins of mpox and background to the outbreak

Journal article

Recent animal disease outbreaks and their impact on human populations

by Jeffrey B. Bender, Will Hueston, and Mike Osterholm in Journal of Agromedicine

This review examines the implications of emerging animal diseases and highlights why there needs to be better collaboration between veterinary and medical practitioners, especially in rural areas.

Journal article

Edward Jenner and the history of smallpox and vaccination

by Stefan Riedel in Baylor University Medical Center Proceedings

Discover the origins of smallpox and the smallpox vaccination, in this article.

Journal article

Monkeypox re-emergence in Africa: a call to expand the concept and practice of One Health

by Mary G. Reynolds, et al. in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

Find out how interrupting the transmission of mpox from animals to humans is key to combating this disease.

Journal article

Importance of epidemiological research of monkeypox: is incidence increasing?

by Chikwe Ihekweazu, et al. in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

This study published in 2020 explores some of the challenges of managing the threat of mpox.

Journal article

Smallpox: a review for health educators

by Timothy J. Bungum in American Journal of Health Education

This article describes the history and eradication of smallpox and discusses how health professionals can prepare for an outbreak of smallpox and similar viruses.

Book chapter


by Vinayagamurthy Balamurugan, Gnanavel Venkatesan, and Veerakyathappa Bhanuprakash in Molecular Detection of Animal Viral Pathogens

This book chapter explores diagnostic approaches for viruses of the orthopoxvirus genus, such as mpox.

Book chapter

Monkeypox virus

by Joseph E. Blaney and Reed F. Johnson in Manual of Security Sensitive Microbes and Toxins

A medical overview of the mpox virus, including biology and epidemiology, identification and diagnosis, treatments, and prevention.

Book chapter

Orthopoxviruses – monkeypox, cowpox, vaccinia, camelpox, mousepox

by M. Sofi Ibrahim and James D. Mellott in Encyclopedia of Medical Genomics and Proteomics

This chapter explores mpox and related orthopoxviruses from a genomics and proteomics perspective.

Transmission and spread

Journal article

Knowledge of human monkeypox viral infection among general practitioners: a cross-sectional study in Indonesia

by Harapan Harapan, et al. in Pathogens and Global Health

This article highlights the challenges of controlling a mpox outbreak when there's a lack of collaboration between central government and front-line health professionals.

Journal article

Spread of variola minor among vaccinated members of a household

by Guilherme Rodrigues-Da-Silva, Juan J. Angulo, and S. Ivo Rabello in Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases

This case study from 1973 examines how a child who caught smallpox at school infected members of their household.


Journal article

An overview of Tecovirimat for smallpox treatment and expanded anti-orthopoxvirus applications

by Andrew T. Russo, et al. in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

Get a detailed overview of Tecovirimat (ST-246), a drug that was approved for the treatment of symptomatic smallpox by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in 2018.

Journal article

The design and development of drugs acting against the smallpox virus

by Kamel El Omari and David K. Stammers in Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery

This article reviews the development of several antiviral drugs for treating smallpox and associated viruses including mpox.

Close up of a researcher carrying out scientific research in a chemistry lab

Journal article

Smallpox antiviral drug development: satisfying the animal efficacy rule

by Robert Jordan and Dennis Hruby in Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy

This review examines some of the challenges of developing therapeutics to prevent and treat smallpox when it's no longer an endemic disease.

Vaccine research

Journal article

IMVAMUNE®: modified vaccinia Ankara strain as an attenuated smallpox vaccine

by Jeffrey S Kennedy and Richard N Greenberg in Expert Review of Vaccines

This profile examines IMVAMUNE, a smallpox vaccine that has been proposed for high-risk people such as those with immune deficiency disorders.

Journal article

Vaccinia virus-based vector against infectious diseases and tumors

by Ziling Zhang, et al. in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Most smallpox vaccines are developed using the vaccinia virus. Find out about the history, status, and prospects of vaccinia virus-based vaccines in this mini-review.

Journal article

Smallpox vaccines for biodefense: need and feasibility

by Andrew W. Artenstein and John D. Grabenstein in Expert Review of Vaccines

This article reviews the history of smallpox vaccines, assesses the status of newer vaccines, and examines the risks and benefits of smallpox vaccination.

Journal article

The new ACAM2000™ vaccine and other therapies to control orthopoxvirus outbreaks and bioterror attacks

by Lauren Handley, et al. in Expert Review of Vaccines

ACAM2000 is licensed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for immunization against smallpox and is available for the prevention of mpox. This article profiles ACAM2000.

Book chapter

Vaccinia virus and other poxviruses as live vectors

by Bernard Moss in New Generation Vaccines

This book chapter examines the viruses used to create smallpox vaccines.

Book chapter

Vaccinia viral vectors for vaccines and oncolytic virotherapy

by Z. Sheng Guo, J. Andrea McCart, and David L. Bartlett in Gene and Cell Therapy: Therapeutic Mechanisms and Strategies

Vaccinia virus has been used clinically as a smallpox vaccine for more than 150 years. This book chapter reviews its biology, lifecycle, immune responses, safety, and more.

Cover of New Generation vaccines book

Book chapter

Improved smallpox vaccines

by Matthew E. Cohen and Stuart N. Isaacs in New Generation Vaccines

In this book chapter, authors from the University of Pennsylvania examine several types of smallpox vaccines.

They review the issues around vaccine stocks and address the challenge of vaccinating a population with diverse medical needs.

Vaccination strategy

Journal article

Modeling of optimal vaccination strategies in response to a bioterrorism-associated smallpox outbreak

by Valentina Costantino, Mohana Kunasekaran, and Chandini Raina MacIntyre in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

This study simulated several types of vaccination programs in response to a smallpox outbreak in Sydney, Australia.

Journal article

The strategic use of novel smallpox vaccines in the post-eradication world

by Joseph W Golden and Jay W Hooper in Expert Review of Vaccines

This review examines novel subunit/component vaccines and the roles they might play in unconventional strategies to defend against emerging orthopoxvirus diseases such as mpox.

Journal article

Leapfrogging with technology: introduction of a monitoring platform to support a large-scale Ebola vaccination program in Rwanda

by Paula McKenna, et al. in Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics

Find out how the Rwanda Ministry of Health initiated a preventive vaccination campaign supported by a vaccination monitoring platform (VMP).

Vaccination Programmes cover

Book chapter

Vaccination programmes: aims and strategies

by Susan Hahné, Kaatje Bollaerts, and Paddy Farrington in Vaccination Programmes

As well as a brief overview of the history of programmatic vaccination, this chapter highlights the aims, strategies, and monitoring and evaluation methods of vaccine programs.

It also describes the roles of stakeholders and international networks.

Tackling health-related stigma

Journal article

Dark Winter and the spring of 1972: deflecting the social lessons of smallpox

by Ronald Barrett in Medical Anthropology

This article highlights how simulations of smallpox outbreaks tend to ignore the key social factors – such as stigma of disease and access to health care – that can contribute to the severity of outbreaks.

Journal article

The impact of sources of stigma on health care avoidance among gay and bisexual men in Australia

by L. Brener, et al. in AIDS Care

Anyone can catch mpox but there are higher levels of transmission in gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (GBM). This study examines whether stigma from various sources affects GBM's access to health care services.

Journal article

Health-related stigma: rethinking concepts and interventions

by Mitchell G. Weiss, Jayashree Ramakrishna, and Daryl Somma in Psychology, Health & Medicine

Stigma contributes to a hidden burden of illness. This review highlights approaches for reducing the effect of stigma on health interventions.

Journal article

International research workshop on health-related stigma and discrimination

by Daryl Somma and Virginia Bond in Psychology, Health & Medicine

This workshop examines models of health-related stigma and discrimination. It also highlights strategies for measuring and reducing stigma and discrimination in a health care context.

Chinese gate in front of Lan Yuan chinese gardens in Dunedin, New Zealand

Journal article

Who's to blame for the spread of COVID-19 in New Zealand? Applying attribution theory to understand public stigma

by Thao Nguyen, et al. in Communication Research and Practice

This study investigates blame attribution and prejudices against Asian and Chinese people in New Zealand during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Health communication and media

Journal article

Spreading Ebola panic: Newspaper and social media coverage of the 2014 Ebola health crisis

by Danielle K. Brown, Joseph Yoo, and Thomas J. Johnson in Health Communication

The media has historically contributed to public fear and panic by emphasizing the risks and uncertainties of health crises. This research examines news coverage of the 2014 Ebola crisis, exploring differences between newspaper coverage and news shared on social media.

Journal article

Smallpox vaccination is not associated with infertility in a healthy young adult population

by Isabel G. Jacobson, et al. in Human Vaccines

This study explored whether there's a relationship between infertility diagnosis and the smallpox vaccine.

Journal article

A systematic review of fear, stigma, and mental health outcomes of pandemics

by Aghna Wasim, et al. in Journal of Mental Health

As part of this study, researchers examined the role of misinformation in propagating discrimination and prejudice towards certain groups.

Journal article

Fear factor: The unseen perils of the Ebola outbreak

by James M. Shultz, et al. in Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists

Infectious diseases create fear and psychological reactions. This article highlights how authorities must consider this to reduce the deadly effects of fear during future outbreaks.

Close up of a person on white clothing using a smartphone

Journal article

Troubling expertise: social media and young people's sexual health

by Paul Byron in Communication Research and Practice

Social media is an integral part of many young people's lives. This article draws on recent health promotion research to examine the effectiveness of sexual health promotion on social media.

Book chapter

Notions of risk

by Andrea Kitta in Vaccinations and Public Concern in History

This book chapter examines how health educators can effectively communicate the concept of risk in relation to vaccinations and their associated diseases.

Book Chapter

Monitoring vaccine coverage and attitudes towards vaccination

by Susan Hahné, Kaatje Bollaerts, and Paddy Farrington in Vaccination Programmes

In this chapter, the authors use case studies to highlight methods for understanding public attitudes towards vaccination and monitoring and interpreting vaccine coverage.

Graffiti that says 'deaths normal no pandemic' on sea fence

Insights article

Combatting disinformation

Disinformation, misinformation, and "fake news" has a significant negative impact on society during a health crisis. In this Insights article, leading experts explain how disinformation spreads, why it's dangerous, and how to fight it.

Support and resources from health organizations

Nurse in NHS vaccination ward

Publish your research and insights

Submit your research to the F1000 monkeypox collection

The COVID-19 pandemic highlighted that the rapid sharing of research is critical for supporting governments around the world in their response to outbreaks of diseases such as monkeypox.

F1000Research is an Open Research publishing platform for scientists, scholars, and clinicians. It allows you to publish articles and other research outputs quickly.

Our monkeypox collection aims to bring together important research related to any aspect of monkeypox and makes this information readily available to researchers, educators, health officials, and the general public.

We welcome a range of article types including opinion pieces, living systematic reviews, and original research articles.

Find out more or submit your research.

Close up shot of vials containing monkeypox vaccine with person's gloved hands in background.

Publish in a journal

Browse calls for papers for opportunities that fit your area of expertise.

Or find out how to publish your research in a Taylor & Francis journal.